In this study, a set of 534 black gram accessions from various origins were assessed by SSR markers from azuki bean and cowpea, with the aims of determining the level of genetic diversity and population structure. Rebetzke (2006) Variation among Australian accessions of the wild mungbean (. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from … 1D). 474 Two major groups exist for black gram from West Asia (Fig. These results suggest that there are multiple times and/or sources of introduction of black gram into Southeast Asia. Mol. Srinives,  P. (1990) Mungbean breeding and genetic resources in Thailand. Cluster III was mainly composed of accessions from West Asia and the Himalayan region, and represents subpopulation II. Weir,  B.S. Ecol. Rabbani (2001) Genetic diversity in blackgram (, Ghafoor,  A. and  Z.  Ahmad (2005) Diversity of agronomic traits and total seed protein in black gram (, Goudet,  J. However, gene diversity and AR between the Himalayan black grams in cluster II and cluster III are comparable (0.42 vs. 0.48 and 2.69 vs. 3.77, respectively; data not shown). Black gram flour and powder are used as major ingredients for several kinds of foods, such as cakes, biscuits, snacks, cookies, and doughnuts. Although no SSR marker has been developed from black gram, thousands of them have been developed in other Vigna crops, including azuki bean (Wang et al. Edited and published by : Japanese Society of Breeding. Theor. However, archaeological evidence suggests that domestication of black gram may be as long as 3,500–4,500 years ago (Fuller and Harvey 2006). Available from, Gupta,  S.,  S.R. 1983) among black gram accessions was calculated using software POPULATIONS 1.2.31 (Langella 2002) and was then used in a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and neighbor-joining analysis using R-program 2.10.0 (R Development Core Team 2012) and MEGA6 (Tamura et al. Prashanth,  B.P. 1984). Vaughan and  P.  Srinives (2014) Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop. Clear genetic differentiation between the wild and cultivated gene pools was shown in mungbean (Sangiri et al. 2006). The first, second, and third PCs accounted for 14.89%, 13.03%, and 9.45%, respectively. Yet, they showed low distance from cultivated black grams from Southeast Asia. Scoles (2001) Determining genetic similarities and relationships among cowpea breeding lines and cultivars by microsatellite markers. 2009). Evanno,  G.,  S.  Regnaut and  J.  Goudet (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. 2012), and mungbean (Seehalak et al. 2007). Subpopulation I, II, and III comprised 159, 188, and 187 accessions, respectively. Most of them scattered around the center of the plot. The results will be useful for black gram breeders/geneticists to better understand diversity and domestication of the crop. Tamura,  K.,  G.  Stecher,  D.  Paterson,  A.  Filipski and  S.  Kumar (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Five hundred and thirty-four accessions of black gram, including 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions from various geographical origins covering major growing areas, were used in this study (Table 1 and Supplemental Table 1). Vaughan,  H.  Moss and  N.  Maxted (2002) The Asian, Tomooka,  N.,  A.  Kaga and  D.A. Pages 127-137, (compatible with EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks). Piper,  C.V. and  W.J. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, 2015 (2007) included many wild accessions from Australia, which generally have smaller flowers than those of mungbean from other regions (Lawn and Rebetzke 2006). The tree demonstrated that three major clusters exist, in general; accessions in each of the three subpopulations as identified by STRUCUTURE analysis were clustered together (Fig. In farmers' fields in tropical Vertisols of peninsular India, "high" fertilizer and pesticide usage at about 2.3 times the recommended rates in black gram (Vigna mungo) did not have a deleterious effect on the abundance of culturable microorganisms, associative nitrogen fixers, nitrifiers, and 16S rRNA gene diversity compared to normal rates. 2008) and is lower than that reported in rice bean (0.15; Tian et al. However, most accessions were differentiated from one region to another. This cluster represents subpopulation III. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding, Vol. 1 and 2). Both species originated in India, sharing several common morphological characteristics, and are cultivated and utilized in similar ways (Tomooka et al. The former is present in Africa, Asia, and Australia, while the latter is only found in limited areas of Asia, mainly in India, Myanmar, and Thailand (Tomooka et al. Theor. (2001) and Ghafoor et al. Electrophoresis was run at 80 W constant power for 2 to 3 h (depending on allele size) using Model S2 Sequencing Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus (Biometra, Goettingen, Germany). Maréchal,  R.,  J.M. Lodhi,  M.A.,  G.N. (2014)] and from cowpea [1 genomic SSR reported by Li et al. Urdbean leaf crinkle disease (ULCD) is an economically significant widespread and devastating disease resulting in extreme crinkling, puckering and rugosity of leaves inflicting heavy yield losses annually in major urdbean-producing countries of the world. Most of the accessions in subpopulation II were from South Asia (82%), with some accessions from the Himalayan region (13%) and West Asia (4%). Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. The population was derived from an inter-subspecific cross between a black gram cultivar, TU94-2, and a wild genotype, V. mungo var. SSR (also known as microsatellite) is the marker of choice for molecular genetics study in crops because of its advantages of being co-dominant, multi-allelic, reliable, PCR-based, and easy to score, and requiring a small amount of DNA for analysis. (2002) FSTAT: a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices. Mascherpa and  F.  Stainier (1978) Etude taxonomique d’un groupe complex d’espèces des geners. 1A). Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. 2007). Vertovec (1994) noted that about 95,000 people from India migrated to Trinidad from 1874 to 1917; some of them might have introduced black gram, resulting in the highest gene diversity detected in this study. Although the provenance/locality of many black grams from Nepal is not known, most black grams with known locality (eastern Nepal) were grouped together (cluster III and see also Supplemental Table 1 for details on the locality). unguiculata primer-pairs. Contrib. Appl. This suggests that black gram cultivars in West Asia were introduced from both South Asia and the Himalayan region. 2) and selected to adapt to the environment. The SSR markers were amplified using GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 thermocycler (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) or PTC-200 thermocycler (MJ Research, Waltham, USA). Dosa is a crispy fermented crepe or savory pancake originated from South India. The PCR products were separated on 5% denatured polyacrylamide gel (w/v; 19 : 1 acrylamide-bisacrylamide) with 7M urea and 1×TBE buffer. Vaughan (2006) The Asian. ty in Seventy ve genotypes of black gram Gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) and to identify genetic diverse parents for hybridization programmed at yield improvement in this crop. Cultivation of black gram also principally occurs in these countries, while mungbean is more widely cultivated. Nei’s DA among black grams of different types and/or from different regions is shown in Table 3. In this study the average number of alleles per SSR locus was 9.0. Although the scatter plot of black gram germplasm based on PC1 and PC2 showed that there were no clear distinct groups of germplasm, it demonstrated that accessions in the same subpopulation as identified by STRUCTURE analysis were mainly scattered together on the PCoA plot (Fig. Pages 127-137, (compatible with EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks). Variation, scattering mainly around the center of diversity of America was the highest in accessions from South Asia and! Diversity within the black gram, and III, respectively the utilization of available genetic diversity of the crop various! 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