Wells was a journalist, teacher, rights activist, and a public speaker. The 14th Amendment had granted equal protection to African Americans under the law. Wells, an African-American journalist and one of the early leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, investigated the reasons behind these lynchings. Wells's prodding, many of them settling in the new Oklahoma territory. The preface to the pamphlet explains the evolution of the study, saying its purpose is to give an unvarnished, or true, account of Southern lynching. The president of the United States (Benjamin Harrison), she says, has said lynch law will not be allowed in the Western territories. Wells dedicated most of her life to spreading the word about the horrific nature of lynching in the American South. In 1892 Ida B. It occurred after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. This section begins with an account of how a lynch mob came for the editors of The Memphis Free Speech, which Wells refers to as "Free Speech." From that brief comment it might be assumed that the women had shared views and experiences of the world. This incident occurred after an editorial, published on May 21, 1892, decried the recent lynching of eight men. Free Speech thus advised black people to leave Memphis and settle elsewhere, and they did leave in large numbers. These incidents demonstrate that black men were falsely accused of rape and other crimes. He strongly condemns lynching as "dastardly submission to the mob reign." The following analysis will examine, The Hireling and the Slave, by William John Grayson. Wells points out the double standard, reminding the reader about black female slaves who had been raped or taken as mistresses by whites during their long captivity in the South. Chapter 23: Black Judases. Of these casualties, 3,446 were black (about 73 percent). In essence, the court took the teeth out of these amendments. About 6,000 African Americans left Memphis as a result of Ida B. Wells relates details, mostly gleaned from newspapers, of more than a dozen incidents in which black men either ran away after being charged or were jailed or tortured and killed. They are accessories, or helpers, before and after the fact, just as guilty as the actual lawbreakers. Wells argues against the lynching of African Americans of the time. He was a spokesman for "the New South" after the Civil War and sought Northern investment in fledgling Southern industries. August 22, 2018. 22 Aug. 2018. Summary: "This brief volume introduces readers to the prominent reformer and journalist Ida B. Wells 8 August 2016 In the late 19th century, Ida B. Wells quotes extensively from a letter written by Colonel A.S. Colyar to the Nashville American. The book examines racial and sexual violence in the South during the Jim Crow era by pairing the stories of two women--the black anti-lynching advocate Ida B. Southern Horrors provides a startling view into the Jim Crow South where the precarious and subordinate position of women linked black and white anti-rape activists together in fragile political alliances. The author's friends were black entrepreneurs who had opened the People's Grocery Company. At the same time, white men are not punished for their rapes of black females. 768 Words 4 Pages. As an African American woman in the south during this time, Ida B. He had a pack of letters from the woman in question, proving their affair was consensual. The Civil Rights Act of 1875, the first law passed to forbid discrimination in public places, was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1883. During this period of Reconstruction, the majority of white citizens still fostered deep hatred towards recently … Southern Horrors Study Guide. As a result, "the black shadow of lawlessness in the form of lynch law is spreading its wings over the whole country." She cites numerous incidents in the pamphlet, many of which were reported in some fashion in the white press. In summary, Wells is arguing that some people turn a blind eye to lynching if they think it is done as a kind of rough justice in response to the rape of a woman. Wells’ uses many strategies and techniques to make her arguments as convincing as possible throughout her … Wells insists that white men continued to have sexual relations with black women after the Civil War, and even if they were not consensual, the men suffered few consequences. Another mob of 75 white men stormed the jail where the grocers were being held. Southern Horrors provides a startling view into the Jim Crow South where the precarious and subordinate position of women linked black and white anti-rape activists together in fragile political alliances. Ida B. Wells-Barnett’s Southern Horrors was published with the intention of bringing awareness to the injustice of Southern lynching and exposing its true purpose. She notes that if it became well known that African Americans were ready to fire on intruders, white aggressors might have "greater respect for African American life." Wells discusses the injustice and horrors of Southern lynch laws, focusing especially on the violence enacted against African Americans following the Civil War and Reconstruction Era. However, their business was destroyed, and they were exiled from their town. During this period of Reconstruction, the majority of white citizens still fostered deep hatred towards recently freed African Americans. Southern Horrors, written and published in 1892 by Ida B. Thus, it is necessary for black people to create a more robust African American press and get the facts in front of the public. An illustration of a magnifying glass. Skip to main content. Of the 728 of these victims counted by the Chicago Tribune, only one-third had been charged with rape, not judged to be guilty. Ida B. Wells-Barnett’s Southern Horrors was published with the intention of bringing awareness to the injustice of Southern lynching and exposing its true purpose. The writer says the families were safe because black people still knew how to keep their place. She does not mince words when she deconstructs the governmental response to lynching. What’s more, is the reasoning behind why the author is writing this book and his projected achievements from doing so. In other words, lynching would not be possible without the tacit complicity of state and local officials. 7 Jan. 2021. But this has not been the case, says Wells. Wells accuses Grady of depicting the African American population as "incapable of self-government." In reading, “Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching,” the reader will see into the lives and struggles of both Felton and Wells-Barnett. Her text is remarkable for its time. With no help coming from the government, they must look to themselves. Wells's campaign began in March 1892 in Memphis, Tennessee, after three of her friends were lynched. Wells's prodding, many of them settling in the new Oklahoma territory. In Ida B. Wells’ works Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases and A Red Record, Ida B. Summary Of Ida B. Wells-Barnett's Southern Horrors 1305 Words | 6 Pages. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! Underwood, the wife of a minister of Elyria, Ohio, accused an Afro-American of rape. Who is the author and what segment of the population was this author attempting to reach? Wells shared a story in her autobiography of three friends who were murdered because they operated a grocery store that was in competition with a different store operated by a white man. It ended in a confrontation between a white mob and the black grocers, who shot and wounded three white men barging into their store. Wells then provides details of the case of three black friends who were arrested for defending themselves against a white mob. By acquiescing to the so-called necessity of frontier justice, the American people are opening the door to anarchy, lawlessness, and injustice. First, she points out that the South owes its "rehabilitation," or recovery from the Civil War, to Northern money and "Afro-American labor." Wells also demonstrates how white women are under pressure to lie about these affairs and ensure their lovers' deaths. Furthermore, she states, the mob spirit has grown as African Americans are able to increase their "intelligence," or educate themselves, since the true object of lynching is to suppress the black population. Wells continued to fight against lynching, writing two additional investigative reports, A Red Record (1895) and Mob Rule in New Orleans (1900). See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. Web. Neither of them could return to Memphis, and the paper was shut down. Contemporary data bears out Wells's conclusions. Wells dedicated most of her life to spreading the word about the horrific nature of lynching in the American South. Copyright © 2016. Summary of Southern Horror s. 2.1 The Offense. They believed they would eventually be allowed to participate in governance. She spoke widely in public forums, going as far as England to get her cause in front of the public. Her text is remarkable for its time. Wells, provides an in-depth . She is also unusual for her time in her radical response to racial oppression. Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases 44. by Ida B. Wells-Barnett. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Course Hero, "Southern Horrors Study Guide," August 22, 2018, accessed January 7, 2021, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Southern-Horrors/. Excerpt(fromIda(B.(Wells,(Southern)Horrors,1892.(ChapterOne:THE(OFFENSE(Wednesday(evening(May(24,(1892,(the(city(of(Memphis(was(filled(with(excitement. It contains a frank discussion of the sexual politics of race. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Stamped from the Beginning, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Ida B Wells Southern Horrors Summary. Southern Horrors and Other Writings of Ida B. The men—grocers Thomas Moss, Calvin McDowell, and Henry Stewart—were then secretly taken from jail and brutally lynched. Lynching was an act of murder by mob violence, particularly against black men, women, and children after the American Civil War (1861–65). Ida Bell Wells (1862-1931) was an African American journalist, suffragist, sociologist, and an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement. Australia’s free online research portal. Wells 8 August 2016 In the late 19th century, Ida B. The second chapter contains a detailed summary of Southern Horrors, divided into five subsections. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The manager was able to escape the mob. The author ends her treatise with specific advice for African Americans. For example, she names a white man, Pat Hanifan, who raped a black girl, delivering physical injuries that ruined her for life. Effects of Southern Horrors. Quotes from Southern Horrors:... “The miscegnation laws of the South only operate against the legitimate union of the races; they leave the white man free to seduce all the colored girls he can, but it is death to the colored man who yields to the force and advances of a similar attraction in white women. This newspaper tirade was followed by a meeting of leading businessmen of Memphis, who came together to discuss a retaliatory lynching. It is also noteworthy in conveying her clear understanding that racism was a method for retaining economic power. Ida B. Wells-Barnett Southern Horrors 6 THE BLACK AND WHITE OF IT The Cleveland Gazette of January 16, 1892, publishes a case in point. Lynchings were frequently announced in newspapers and treated as social events by some white people, who would take home souvenirs such as bits of bone and flesh of the victim. Free for commercial use, no attribution required. Wells and her late-nineteenth-century crusade to abolish lynching. In addition, black men were also being punished for consensual relations between themselves and their white female partners. (2018, August 22). Wells supports her thesis with information gleaned from an extensive investigation of the widespread, lawless torture and murder of black men and women. In Course Hero. Thoroughly appalled and sickened by the rising numbers of white-on-black murders in the South since the beginning of Reconstruction, and by the unwillingness of local, state and federal governments to prosecute those who were responsible, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett wrote Southern Horrors, a pamphlet in which she exposed the horrible reality of lynchings to the rest of the nation and to the world. Southern Horrors. The following excerpt comes from her work entitled Southern Horrors: Lynch Laws in All Its Phases, which was originally published in the New York Age (June 25, 1892) and was then printed as a pamphlet after much demand and many donations. Wells points out that not only did African Americans lose rights, but they also continue to be murdered—878 by lynching from 1884 to 1892. But Wells points out that such laws deal death to black men entering into sexual relationships with white women. Wells points out that blacks often conceded to the scaling back of their rights to avoid "wholesale massacres." Wells, 1892-1900. Southern Horrors is the history of two 19th-century women, Rebecca Felton and Ida Wells, who, in rather different ways, campaigned in the southern states of the United States against sexual violence towards women. Wells dedicated most of her life to spreading the word about the horrific nature of lynching in the American South. Wells’ uses many strategies and techniques to make her arguments as convincing as possible throughout her works. She encouraged African Americans to fight back economically and physically against white people. In "The New Cry," Wells makes the point that lynching became what in modern terms people would call a homegrown form of terrorism to keep black people in "their place." Accessed January 7, 2021. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Southern-Horrors/. About 6,000 African Americans left Memphis as a result of Ida B. Paperback. central idea behind the authors writing of the book is his analysis of the letters and speeches that the secession commissioners wrote, in which he sought the reasons other than states’ rights to their secession from the Union. Frank Weems of Chattanooga, Tennessee, avoided lynching because some prominent citizens watched over him when he was taken to jail for rape. Wells also calls for boycotts of segregated transportation. Wells, 1892-1900 / "This brief volume introduces readers to the prominent reformer and journalist Ida B. Wells means that people may have to face up to the fact that white women may willingly engage in intimate relations with black men. Both black and white leaders who approve of lynching for the crime of rape open the door to lynching for any crime. Ida B. Wells was out of town in New York, and her business manager was able to leave town in time to escape the mob. The lynch mob took charge of the prisoners and promptly and brutally murdered them. She argued that they were not being raped but rather chose to engage in consensual sex with black men. Wells argues against the lynching of African Americans of the time. In the end she confessed her lie to her spouse after her lover had already served four years in prison. Wells also includes a short letter from Frederick Douglass, a respected abolitionist and African American statesman, which endorses the pamphlet for exposing lynching crime. SOUTHERN HORRORS In the late 19th century, Ida B. It is a story that reveals how the complex drama of political power, race, and sex played out in the lives of Southern women. For example, one white woman indicted for miscegenation swore in court she was not white to avoid jail time and remain with her lover. But even so, the statistics show that lynching is not primarily a response to rape. She first brings up a case in which a white woman accused her black lover of rape for fear that her husband would find out about her affair. After reading, I’ve become biased and wonder what made the author chose Rebecca Felton as a candidate to be acknowledged as a women’s activist. Southern Horrors And Other Writings SOUTHERN HORRORS In the late 19th century, Ida B. The following essay will review the author’s story through a critical analysis approach by analyzing the main points while also interpreting both the good (setting, plot development that resembles a horror theme), and bad (no definite resolution)…, PDA: The Hireling and the Slave Wells was part of the Niagara Movement, which led to the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She told her husband that The "new cry" that she references in the heading for this section is, "This is a white man's country and the white man must rule.". In Ida B. Wells’ works Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases and A Red Record, Ida B. Show More. Course Hero. A series of racial incidents soon followed. Wells uses the actual words from newspaper editorials. Wells, an African American journalist and part-owner of a black newspaper, The Memphis Free Speech, began writing a series of pointed editorials. About the Author: Journalist and speaker Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862–1931) is best known for leading the fight against the lynching of African Americans in the late nineteenth … In addition, sexual relations between the races are illegal in the South in her era. Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases was the first documented analysis of post–Civil War lynching in the United States. An Analysis of Southern Horrors and Other Writings In the period immediately following the Civil War, racial tensions were extremely high in the South. Wells juxtaposes the innocence of the black men with incidents of white men guilty of raping or attempting to rape black women or girls. Wells and her late-nineteenth-century crusade to abolish lynching. The "Southern barbarism" which deserves the serious attention of all people North and South, is the barbarism which preys upon weak and defenseless women. Wells and her late-nineteenth-century crusade to abolish lynching. Wells was a journalist, teacher, rights activist, and a public speaker. It is a story that reveals how the complex drama of political power, race, and sex played out in the lives of Southern women. These ritualized killings were public displays designed to terrorize black people from claiming economic or political power. Stamped from the Beginning: Chapter 22: Southern Horrors Summary & Analysis Next. Immediately download the Southern Horrors summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Southern Horrors. In one particularly gruesome case, Edward Coy was burned alive in Texarkana, Arkansas, while protesting his innocence. Whites wanted to limit the social, political, and economic lives of African Americans. Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931) was an American investigative journalist, educator, and early leader in the civil rights movement.She was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She understands the role of lynching in deterring African Americans from openly enjoying the full rights of citizenship. She is not afraid to say that the social, political, and economic power structure supports lynching. In this section, Wells describes relationships between white women and black men and their consequences. Second, she urges Southern blacks to turn their backs on places where they are oppressed and marginalized and to emigrate to other cities, states or territories. In fact, the court's decisions opened wide the door to sanctioned racial discrimination, segregation, and the provision of "separate but equal" accommodations. The main character that the story singles out the most is the Granny. $7.95. An altercation occurred and the three black men were jailed, but were shot to pieces before they received a fair judicial trial. Ida B. Wells-Barnett’s Southern Horrors was published with the intention of bringing awareness to the injustice of Southern lynching and exposing its true purpose. Wells … The lawbreakers persist because they know that neither "the law nor the militia" will be used to stop them. An illustration of a magnifying glass. Paperback $ 7.95. Wells Southern Horrors and Other Writings by Jacqueline Royster is a great awakening to the gruesome horrors of the lynchings of the late 1800’s. Hundreds of African Americans were viciously murdered, as the government failed to step in and stop the killings. In the New South, African Americans are still robbed of their vote, their civil rights, due process, and the fruits of their labors. The African American ministers, newspapers, and community leaders counsel obedience to the law, but the law does not protect them. Does the author display a bias? Colyar says lynching supplants the court and jury, "giving up the jail keys to the mob whenever they are demanded." In another case, a white woman gave birth to a black child and named three men as the father. It was the first piece of writing to do this. Wells and the white pro-lynching advocate Rebecca Felton--who both fought for women's rights, but did so in vastly different ways. Course Hero. The Montgomery boycott was successfully carried out by Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders from 1955 to 1956. She fought for civil rights and women's rights for the rest of her life. Ida B. Black people have learned enough to know they are hopelessly behind their white counterparts, this writer claims. A lynching is a public murder, generally by hanging, carried out by a mob and not preceded by a legal trial. What does this document reveal about the mentality of slaveholders and their view of the world…, An Analysis of Southern Horrors and Other Writings In the period immediately following the Civil War, racial tensions were extremely high in the South. All the men "disappeared," presumably killed for the same offense. 768 Words 4 Pages. Finally, Wells reminds readers she has substantiated how the press generally is unreliable and biased in reporting lynchings. Wells quotes two white newspapers calling for violence against the editors of Free Speech. Lynching was an act of murder by mob violence, particularly against black men, women, and … Pamphlet. Retrieved January 7, 2021, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Southern-Horrors/. Another editorial faults African Americans for their "boorish insolence" toward white people. In this section the author explains how the leading men of the South make apologies for lynching as a response to a heinous crime. The lesson meant to be learned by the black community is subordination. These are recorded numbers, and it is likely there were many more lynchings than were recorded. Ship This Item — Qualifies for Free Shipping Buy Online, Pick up in Store Check Availability at Nearby Stores. A Justification of Slavery Wells Date: 1892 Source: Southern Horrors is a pamphlet published in 1892 by Ida B. The incidents include men accused of rape while having consensual sex and those who had merely a passing acquaintance with a white woman. Dated: 1892 - 1892. The populace also turns a blind eye to these proceedings. These men lived in three different parts of the country, but all were accused of the crime of rape. 1054 Words 5 Pages. She uses the writings of Ida B. The Court also ruled that the 13th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution did not preclude "uncodified" discrimination. Wells was away in New York. Wells references civil rights laws in this section. $0.99. Course Hero. By: Ida B. Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. Southern horrors : lynch law in all its phases Names Wells-Barnett, Ida B., 1862-1931 (Author) Dates / Origin Date Issued: 1892 Place: New York Publisher: New York Age Print Library locations Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division Shelf locator: Sc Rare 364.1-B (Barnett, I.B. Sexual relations between black men and white women are considered to be "abominable," or extremely morally repulsive, by white standards. Another young woman, age 17, gave birth to a black child and refused to reveal the name of her black partner. Course Hero. She makes the point that lynching is not a response to rape. The presses were destroyed. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. She went so far as to call on African Americans to arm themselves in their homes. Meanwhile, a large number of the white men involved in Coy's horrific murder had likely fathered biracial children, according to Wells. Download a PDF to print or study offline. The writer claims the unprotected families of the South were left unharmed by their slaves when white men went off to fight in the Civil War. The pamphlet directly confronts and debunks the idea that lynching was a legitimate response to the alleged rape of white women by black men. A line drawing of the Internet Archive headquarters building façade. According to one newspaper report, the woman in question was compelled to charge the victim Coy and lit the match. Themes and Colors Key LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Stamped from the Beginning, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. In reading, “Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching,” the reader will see into the lives and struggles of both Felton and Wells-Barnett. Southern Horrors: Ida B. The 13th Amendment had freed the slaves. What are the story lines of the document? They are still tortured and murdered. Dew’s analysis of the Confederate documents…, through the use of a third person narrative. This leads the white public to arrive at a conclusion that damages the "moral reputation" of their women. She alludes to morality because such relations occur outside the bonds of marriage. Download Image of Southern horrors : lynch law in all its phases. According to Wells, whites used a variety of excuses to justify their murders, claiming that they were stopping, One of the reasons for lynching was to get rid of Negroes who were acquiring wealth. Nor was lynching confined to the South or the post–Civil War era. Southern Horrors is a non-fiction book published in 2009 by the American author and professor Crystal Feimster. As a result, lynch law prevailed. The following questions will be addressed: What is the historical context of this period? Wells (1862 - 1931).Read by James K. White and Laura Victoria. Wells dedicated most of her life to spreading the word about the horrific nature of lynching in the American South Wells was a journalist, teacher, rights activist, and a public speaker. Wells published a pamphlet titled Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases, and A Red Record, 1892 1894, which documented research on a lynching. Moreover, Southern men may go overboard in their accusations. Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases is a pamphlet which documented research on a lynching. View All Available Formats & Editions. An Analysis of Southern Horrors and Other Writings In the period immediately following the Civil War, racial tensions were extremely high in the South. The writer says blacks wish to get even with whites because they (African Americans) know they are inferior. But in fact, even if a man commits such a crime, he is still entitled to due process under the law and is innocent until proven guilty. The victim is often subjected to torture before or after being hanged. The altercation provided the white men the small opportunity they needed to resist the progress of three Negroes, and they took full, The Prize: The Epic Quest For Oil, Money, And Power, Importance Of Modernisation Theory Of India. Moreover, the lawlessness of the South has spread to New York, Pennsylvania, and the Western plains, Wells says. Wells also recommends that black people keep a rifle in their homes to protect themselves because the law does not protect them. She cites as an example the fact that almost all of the Southern states passed laws segregating rail travel (following the repeal of the Civil Rights Act of 1883). NOOK Book. 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