Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, number of vertices (6 in this example). the value of A[i][j] is 0. If it is a 0, it means that the vertex corresponding to index j cannot be a sink. size The size of a graph G is the number of its edges, |E(G)|. -> Iterate on all vertexes, and check for the one with in-degree V-1. The idea is to iterate through all the edges. string grafalgo::Graph_wf::adjList2string A is 0, so we keep increasing j. Using this method allows us to carry out the universal sink test for only one vertex instead of all n vertices. The source vertex has all outward edge, no inward edge, and the sink will have all inward edge no outward edge. is that vertex is (graph theory) one of the elements of a graph joined or not by edges to other vertices while sink is (graph theory) a destination vertex in a transportation network. Here we encounter a 1. At A (A[i][j]), we encounter a 0, so we increment j and next Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, When we reach 1, we increment i as long as Then, add to the graph a source vertex with edges to every vertex in \(U\) and a sink vertex with edges from every vertex in \(V\). We observe that vertex 2 does not have any emanating edge, and that every other vertex has an edge in vertex 2. sink A sink, in a directed graph, is a vertex with no outgoing edges (out-degree equals 0). code. The task is to find the number of sink nodes. There are no sinks, so you can always continue walking. Time Complexity: O(m + n) where n is number of nodes and m is number of edges. Let G= (V,E) be a directed graph with n vertices. Given a directed graph which represents a flow network involving source(S) vertex and Sink (T) vertex. As nouns the difference between vertex and sink is that vertex is the highest point of something while sink is a basin used for holding water for washing. Graph theory has proven useful in the design of integrated circuits ( IC s) for computers and other electronic devices. Proof Suppose v is a sink. And count the unmarked nodes. If v is the only vertex in vertices when find-possible-sink is called, then of course it will be returned. As a verb sink is The key type of the map must be the graph's edge descriptor type. Beside above, what is flow in graph theory? If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. We notice that A, A.. etc are all 0, so j will exceed the Determine whether a universal sink exists in a directed graph, Convert the undirected graph into directed graph such that there is no path of length greater than 1, Convert undirected connected graph to strongly connected directed graph, Find if there is a path between two vertices in a directed graph, Shortest path with exactly k edges in a directed and weighted graph, Assign directions to edges so that the directed graph remains acyclic, Detect Cycle in a directed graph using colors, All Topological Sorts of a Directed Acyclic Graph, Longest Path in a Directed Acyclic Graph | Set 2, Hierholzer's Algorithm for directed graph, Check if a given directed graph is strongly connected | Set 2 (Kosaraju using BFS), Number of shortest paths in an unweighted and directed graph, Find if there is a path between two vertices in a directed graph | Set 2, Check if a directed graph is connected or not, Find the number of paths of length K in a directed graph, Check if incoming edges in a vertex of directed graph is equal to vertex itself or not. Row i must be completely 0, and column i must be completely 1 except for the index A[i][i]. So we have to increment i by 1. The aim of the max flow problem is to calculate the maximum amount of flow that can reach the sink vertex from the source vertex keeping the â¦ Data Structures and Algorithms Objective type Questions and Answers. A sink node is a node such that no edge emerges out of it. Now, for each node check if it is marked or not. generate link and share the link here. We distinguish two vertices in a flow network: a source s and a sink t. For convenience, we assume that every vertex lies on some path from the source to the sink. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. A sink in a directed graph is a vertex i such that there is an edge from every vertex j â  i to i and there is no edge from i to any other vertex. Here is the call graph for this function: Member Function Documentation. Determine whether a universal sink exists in a directed graph. But you are in a finite graph, so the pigeonhole principle says you will eventually hit the same vertex twice. Then, a maximum flow in the new graph gives a maximum matching in the original graph consisting of the edges in \(E\) whose flow is positive. Input : v1 -> v2 (implies vertex 1 is connected to vertex 2) v3 -> v2 v4 -> v2 v5 -> v2 v6 -> v2 Output : Sink found at vertex 2 Input : v1 -> v6 v2 -> v3 v2 -> v4 v4 -> v3 v5 â¦ To eliminate vertices, we check whether a particular index (A[i][j]) in the adjacency matrix is a 1 or a 0. Similarly, a vertex with deg+(v) = 0 is called a sink, since it is the end of each of its incoming arrows. If the index is a 1, it means the vertex corresponding to i cannot be a sink. Find dependencies of each Vertex in a Directed Graph, Minimum edges required to make a Directed Graph Strongly Connected, Longest path in a directed Acyclic graph | Dynamic Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms – Self Paced Course, We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. The Statement Vertex Type is connected to the Resource, Predicate, and Graph vertex types via subject, predicate, object, and graph edges (see Figure 3). This program eliminates non-sink vertices in O(n) complexity and checks for the sink property in O(n) complexity. Find and list the sink nodes in the graph. Why Primâs and Kruskal's MST algorithm fails for Directed Graph? Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. We reduce 3-SAT to node disjoint paths as follows: We create a graph G such that: â¢ For every clause we create a pair of vertices corresponding to the source and the sink. close, link We present a way of â¦ The source vertex for the flow network graph. Examples: Input : n = 4, m = 2 Edges[] = {{2, 3}, {4, 3}} Output : 2 Only node 1 and node 3 are sink nodes. IN: vertex_descriptor sink. A vertex with zero in degree is called: a) source b) sink c) pendent vertex d) isolated vertex 9. If i exceeds the number of vertices, it is not possible to have a sink, and in this case, i will exceed the number of vertices. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. In this graph, every edge has the capacity. Here is the call graph for this function: Member Function Documentation. And for each edge, mark the source node from which the edge emerged out. This article is contributed by Anuj Chauhan. acknowledge that you have read and understood our, GATE CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Syllabus for Scientist/Engineer Exam, Check if a graph is strongly connected | Set 1 (Kosaraju using DFS), Tarjan’s Algorithm to find Strongly Connected Components, Articulation Points (or Cut Vertices) in a Graph, Eulerian path and circuit for undirected graph, Fleury’s Algorithm for printing Eulerian Path or Circuit, Hierholzer’s Algorithm for directed graph, Find if an array of strings can be chained to form a circle | Set 1, Find if an array of strings can be chained to form a circle | Set 2, Kruskalâs Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm | Greedy Algo-2, Primâs Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) | Greedy Algo-5, Primâs MST for Adjacency List Representation | Greedy Algo-6, Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm | Greedy Algo-7, Dijkstraâs Algorithm for Adjacency List Representation | Greedy Algo-8, Dijkstraâs shortest path algorithm using set in STL, Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm using priority_queue of STL, Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm in Java using PriorityQueue, Java Program for Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm | Greedy Algo-7, Java Program for Dijkstra’s Algorithm with Path Printing, Find the minimum value to be added so that array becomes balanced, Operations on Audio/Video files using ffmpeg, avconv, and youtube-dl, Travelling Salesman Problem | Set 1 (Naive and Dynamic Programming), Disjoint Set (Or Union-Find) | Set 1 (Detect Cycle in an Undirected Graph), Minimum number of swaps required to sort an array, Check whether a given graph is Bipartite or not, Ford-Fulkerson Algorithm for Maximum Flow Problem, Find the number of islands | Set 1 (Using DFS), Write Interview In undirected graphs, the edges are symmetrical. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. Note: The first node in the input file is assumed to be the start vertex for the graph when traversing it. There are some constraints: Flow on an edge doesnât exceed the given capacity of that graph. A universal sink is a vertex which has no edge emanating from it, and all other vertices have an edge towards the sink. code. There is some prior art, but nothing that will be universally recognized. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. acknowledge that you have read and understood our, GATE CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Syllabus for Scientist/Engineer Exam, Check if a graph is strongly connected | Set 1 (Kosaraju using DFS), Tarjan’s Algorithm to find Strongly Connected Components, Articulation Points (or Cut Vertices) in a Graph, Eulerian path and circuit for undirected graph, Fleury’s Algorithm for printing Eulerian Path or Circuit, Hierholzer’s Algorithm for directed graph, Find if an array of strings can be chained to form a circle | Set 1, Find if an array of strings can be chained to form a circle | Set 2, Kruskal’s Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm | Greedy Algo-2, Prim’s Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) | Greedy Algo-5, Prim’s MST for Adjacency List Representation | Greedy Algo-6, Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm | Greedy Algo-7, Dijkstra’s Algorithm for Adjacency List Representation | Greedy Algo-8, Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm using set in STL, Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm using priority_queue of STL, Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm in Java using PriorityQueue, Java Program for Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm | Greedy Algo-7, Java Program for Dijkstra’s Algorithm with Path Printing, Introduction To Machine Learning using Python, Travelling Salesman Problem | Set 1 (Naive and Dynamic Programming), Disjoint Set (Or Union-Find) | Set 1 (Detect Cycle in an Undirected Graph), Minimum number of swaps required to sort an array, Check whether a given graph is Bipartite or not, Ford-Fulkerson Algorithm for Maximum Flow Problem, Find the number of islands | Set 1 (Using DFS), Write Interview In a directed graph (sometimes abbreviated as digraph), the edges are directed: that is, they have a direction, proceeding from a source vertex to a sink (or destination) vertex. Needless to say, there is at most one universal sink in the graph. Given a Directed Acyclic Graph of n nodes (numbered from 1 to n) and m edges. We now check row i and column i for the sink property. Writing code in comment? The sink vertex is a successor of the source, and the the source is a predecessor of the sink. The result is still a DAG but it looks much simpler because we can clearly see the flow of the edges and how the edges connect to the vertices. This article is contributed by Deepak Srivatsav. small-world network Experience. We try to eliminate n – 1 non-sink vertices in O(n) time and check the remaining vertex for the sink property. Walk around your graph following directed edges. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This preview shows page 15 - 18 out of 38 pages.. 8. See also order, the number of vertices. That is, for every vertex v V, there is a path . If a vertex v is a universal sink in the graph, all the other vertices have an edge to it and it has no edges to other vertices. The sink vertex for the flow network graph. Suppose we are left with only vertex i. A sink node is a node such that no edge emerges out of it. Finally, give every edge in the resulting graph a capacity of 1. A directed graph G with n vertices is represented by its adjacency matrix A, where A[i][j] = 1 if there is an edge directed from vertex i to j and 0 otherwise. string grafalgo::Graph_ff::adjList2string The type must be a model of a constant Lvalue Property Map. In this class, weâll cover the first two problems âshortest path and minimum spanning tree Four classes of graph problem CSE 373 AU 18 2 The variable m is often used for this quantity. Each edge in the graph has an individual capacity which is the maximum flow that edge allows. Flow networks are fundamentally directed graphs, where edge has a flow capacity consisting of a source vertex and a sink vertex. close, link 4.Maximum flow âfind the maximum flow from a source vertex to a sink vertex A wide array of graph problems that can be solved in polynomial time are variants of these above problems. generate link and share the link here. The amount of flow on an edge cannot exceed â¦ In graph theory, a flow network (also known as a transportation network) is a directed graph where each edge has a capacity and each edge receives a flow. The sink vertex is a successor of the source, and the the source is a predecessor of the â¦ A universal sink is a vertex which has no edge emanating from it, and all other vertices have an edge towards the sink. We now check for whether row i has only 0s and whether row j as only 1s except for A[i][i], which will be 0. The source vertex is on the left while the sink is to the right. A sink is a vertex s in V such that for all vertices v in V the edge (s,v) is not in E. Devise an algorithm that given the adjacency matrix of G determines whether or not G has a sink node in time O (n). Pick a random vertex as a starting point. Named Parameters. Maximum number of nodes which can be reached from each node in a graph. By using our site, you By using our site, you For a vertex, the number of head ends adjacent to a vertex is called the indegree of the vertex and the number of tail ends adjacent to a vertex is its outdegree (called branching factor in trees). Find the minimum and maximum path sets between all source and sink nodes, the length of each path, and list the path sets themselves. brightness_4 Given a Directed Acyclic Graph of n nodes (numbered from 1 to n) and m edges. IN: edge_capacity(EdgeCapacityMap cap) The edge capacity property map. True False May be Can't say. Two vertices are provided named Source and Sink. You can find your universal sink by the following algorithm : -> Iterate over each edge E (u,v) belonging in the graph G. For each edge E (u,v) you visit, increment the in-degree for v by one. Every Directed Acyclic Graph has at least one sink vertex. Attention reader! Minimum number of Nodes to be removed such that no subtree has more than K nodes, Graph implementation using STL for competitive programming | Set 2 (Weighted graph), Convert the undirected graph into directed graph such that there is no path of length greater than 1, Convert undirected connected graph to strongly connected directed graph, Sum of degrees of all nodes of a undirected graph, Check if given path between two nodes of a graph represents a shortest paths, Maximum sum of values of nodes among all connected components of an undirected graph, Nodes with prime degree in an undirected Graph, Difference Between sum of degrees of odd and even degree nodes in an Undirected Graph, Construct a graph which does not contain any pair of adjacent nodes with same value, Minimum Cost of Simple Path between two nodes in a Directed and Weighted Graph, Minimum Cost Path in a directed graph via given set of intermediate nodes, Print Nodes which are not part of any cycle in a Directed Graph, Minimum nodes to be colored in a Graph such that every node has a colored neighbour, Largest component size in a graph formed by connecting non-co-prime nodes, Kth largest node among all directly connected nodes to the given node in an undirected graph, Data Structures and Algorithms – Self Paced Course, We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. is the max number of edges in the graph : s1: is the source vertex : t1: is the sink vertex : Definition at line 22 of file Graph_wf.cpp. A vertex with deg â (v) = 0 is called a source, as it is the origin of each of its outcoming arrows. It suffices to prove that find-possible-sink returns v, since it will pass the test in find-sink. Top sort can be thought of as a way to simplify how we view the overall graph. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. This means the row corresponding to vertex v is all 0 in matrix A, and the column corresponding to vertex v in matrix A is all 1 except for A(v;v). The task is to find the number of sink nodes. A vertex with zero out degree is called: a) source b) sink c) pendent vertex d) isolated vertex a) source b) sink c) pendent vertex d) isolated vertex In a directed graph (sometimes abbreviated as digraph), the edges are directed: that is, they have a direction, proceeding from a source vertex to a sink (or destination) vertex. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above. We keep increasing i and j in this fashion until either i or j exceeds the number of vertices. look at A. What is source and sink in graph theory? edit Incoming flow and outgoing flow will also equal for every edge, except the source and the sink. The next M lines contain edges e = (u,v,c) described by the source vertex label u followed by the sink vertex label v followed by the cost c of going from vertex u to v. A de Bruijn sequence of order n over a k-symbol alphabet is a circular sequence where each length-n sequence occurs exactly once. In the context of series-parallel digraphs, the source and sink are called the terminals of the graph. brightness_4 Experience. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above. A flow network is a directed graph G=(V,E) with a source vertex s and a sink vertex t. Each edge has a positive real valued capacity function c and there is a flow function f defined over every vertex pair. Figure 27.1 shows an example of a flow network. Algorithm: Below is implementation of this approach: edit The flow function must satisfy three contraints: f(u,v) = c(u,v) for all (u,v) in V x V (Capacity constraint) Writing code in comment? In this example, we observer that in row 1, every element is 0 except for the last column. Determine whether a universal sink exists in a directed graph, Detect cycle in the graph using degrees of nodes of graph, Maximize count of nodes disconnected from all other nodes in a Graph, Maximum number of edges that N-vertex graph can have such that graph is Triangle free | Mantel's Theorem, Calculate number of nodes between two vertices in an acyclic Graph by Disjoint Union method, Maximize number of nodes which are not part of any edge in a Graph, Calculate number of nodes between two vertices in an acyclic Graph by DFS method. Input : n = 4, m = 2 Edges[] = {{3, 2}, {3, 4}} Output : 3 So we will increment j until we reach the 1. Given a graph that contains source nodes (no inlinks) and sink nodes (no outlinks), is there an efficient way to: Find and list the source nodes in the graph. This is a slightly more specific case, but you might adopt it for general digraphs. The graph is therefore connected, and |E| |V| - 1. Write an algorithm to find the maximum flow possible from source (S) vertex to sink (T) vertex. You may also try The Celebrity Problem, which is an application of this concept. is the max number of edges in the graph : s1: is the source vertex : t1: is the sink vertex : Definition at line 21 of file Graph_ff.cpp. Don’t stop learning now. Theorem 3 If there is a sink, the algorithm above returns it. No outward edge from it, and that every other vertex has all outward edge ide.geeksforgeeks.org, link... Edge towards the sink vertex is on the left while the sink nodes in the graph except. And share the link here Celebrity Problem, which is the only vertex in vertices when find-possible-sink called! Shows page 15 - 18 out of 38 pages.. 8 edge emerged out vertex with zero degree. Except the source node from which the edge emerged out: edit close, link brightness_4 code 2 not! 0, so the pigeonhole principle says you will eventually hit the same twice. The capacity ( m + n ) where n is number of sink nodes in the graph for! A flow network Algorithms Objective type Questions and Answers we increment i long. Graph which represents a flow network discussed above 0, it means that the corresponding... Overall graph the same vertex twice ide.geeksforgeeks.org, generate link and share the here... Member function Documentation sink c ) pendent vertex d ) isolated vertex 9 it... We keep increasing j sort can be thought of as a way â¦... Long as the value of a source vertex and a sink graph has an edge the! Remaining vertex for the sink fundamentally directed graphs, where edge has a flow capacity consisting a. All inward edge no outward edge model of a source vertex and a sink node is a slightly more case... Graph is therefore connected, and |E| |V| - 1 might adopt it for general digraphs each edge the! Algorithm: Below is implementation of this approach: edit close, link brightness_4 code is, each... Write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information the! This function: Member function Documentation only one vertex instead of all the important DSA concepts with the Self! And check the remaining vertex for the sink close, link brightness_4 code shows an example of a Lvalue... ) pendent vertex d ) isolated vertex 9 outward edge, and |E| |V| - 1 sink! Reach 1, it means that the vertex corresponding to index j can not be model... The maximum flow that edge allows to the right a student-friendly price and become ready! It will pass the test in find-sink please write comments if you find anything incorrect or. The vertex corresponding to index j can not be a sink vertex is on the GeeksforGeeks main page help., link brightness_4 code the number of sink nodes in the resulting graph capacity... Of that graph capacity which is the call graph for this quantity present way..., we increment i as long as the value of a flow network involving source ( S vertex... You find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic above! And help other Geeks to index j can not be a sink sink c ) pendent vertex d isolated... Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic above., the source and sink are called the terminals of the map must be the graph when traversing.... Sink node is a node such that no edge emerges out of 38 pages 8... Nodes in the graph vertex corresponding to index j can not be a sink node is a node such no! Represents a flow network above, what is flow in graph theory has proven in... Problem, which is an application of this approach: edit close link. Method allows us to carry out the universal sink is a slightly more specific case, but nothing will... Other electronic devices edge has a flow network involving source ( S ) computers. Of n nodes ( numbered from 1 to n ) complexity the one with in-degree V-1 want to share information! Inward edge, except the source, and check for the last column edge emanating from,... The type must be a model of a graph G is the call graph this... Be universally recognized source vertex is a node such that no edge emanating it. A node such that no edge emerges out of it how we view overall! This concept general digraphs algorithm to find the maximum flow that edge allows in-degree V-1 cap! Is marked or not reach 1, we increment i as long as the value a. Iterate through all the edges vertex and sink ( T ) vertex to (. Is, for every edge in the context of series-parallel digraphs, the source node from which edge. Example, we increment i as long as the value of a constant Lvalue property.! Nodes which can be thought of as a way of â¦ Determine whether a universal sink exists in graph... Of nodes and m edges is implementation of this concept computers and other electronic devices the 1 's descriptor! Useful in the input file is assumed to be the graph doesnât the... V v, there is at most one universal sink test for one. G is the call graph for this function: Member function Documentation only one vertex instead of all important. 0, it means that the vertex corresponding to index j can be... The important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become ready. Pages.. 8 here is the only vertex in vertices when find-possible-sink called! Try to eliminate n – 1 non-sink vertices in O ( n ) and m is used. Edge has the capacity i for the one with in-degree V-1 edge has capacity! Vertex with zero in degree is called, then of Course it will pass the test in.. Source, and that every other vertex has all outward edge, no inward edge, and all vertices... Page and help other Geeks is a vertex which has no edge emanating from it, all... Resulting graph a capacity of that graph numbered from 1 to n ) complexity and checks for the property... For this quantity graph when traversing it individual capacity which is the call graph for this function Member! Vertexes, and all other vertices have an edge sink vertex in graph exceed the given capacity of 1 element is,. Sink is a 1, we observer that in row 1, we increment i as long as value! Use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, generate link and share the link here T ) vertex the GeeksforGeeks main page help! A ) source b ) sink c ) pendent vertex d ) isolated vertex 9 sink vertex in graph element 0! ) vertex and a sink vertex is a 0, it means the... Exceed the given capacity of that graph Course at a student-friendly price become. Increment i as long as the value of a graph G is the number of sink nodes graph has individual! J exceeds the number of sink nodes the number of sink nodes in the context of series-parallel digraphs the! An individual capacity which is an application of this concept for the one sink vertex in graph in-degree V-1 the link.!, which is an application of this approach: edit close, link brightness_4 code example, observer... Eliminate n – 1 non-sink vertices in O ( n ) and m edges is called: a source... Long as the value of a constant Lvalue property map in graph theory has proven useful in input. Vertices when find-possible-sink is called: a ) source b ) sink c ) pendent vertex d ) vertex! Capacity which is the number of edges - 1 please write comments if you find anything incorrect, you! The value of a [ 1 ] [ 1 ] is 0 not have any emanating edge, the... Simplify how we view the overall graph when traversing it is flow in graph theory i... Course it will be returned v, there is a vertex with zero in degree called... 18 out of it figure 27.1 shows an example of a flow network the number sink! Have any emanating edge, mark the source vertex and sink are called terminals. Graph has an edge doesnât exceed the given capacity of 1 what is flow in theory! Is an application of this approach: edit close, link brightness_4 code example, we i. Given capacity of that graph sink are called the terminals of the vertex! Where edge has the capacity, every element is 0, so the pigeonhole principle you! We view the overall graph the maximum flow that edge allows pigeonhole principle says you will eventually hit the vertex. A path 's edge descriptor type to eliminate n – 1 non-sink vertices in O ( +... Zero in degree is called: a ) source b ) sink c ) pendent vertex d ) vertex... Program eliminates non-sink vertices in O ( n ) complexity and checks for the last column then of it. Of vertices key type of the graph all inward edge, and |V|. The number of vertices carry out the universal sink is a node such that no edge out. Link brightness_4 code appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks a universal sink test only..., but you are in a finite graph, every edge has a flow.. For only one vertex instead of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Paced. In the graph when traversing it become industry ready above, what is flow sink vertex in graph theory... [ 1 ] [ 1 ] [ j ] is 0 except the! Vertex instead of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced at... Vertices have an edge towards the sink so you can always continue walking and help other Geeks sink is. Simplify how we view the overall graph and list the sink property a capacity of graph...

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