But how and why it was lost is still a mystery. The conquering general was told by a Christian man of letters of the need to protect books. The significance of the loss of the Library of Alexandria cannot be overstated. Hipparchus an astronomer and the “founder” of trigonometry who also “discovered” the precession of the equinoxes and map star constellations and was the “first” to establish various brightness levels of stars…, Euclid the most famous teacher of mathematics who was the “founder” of systematized geometry, The medical school established within the Library of Alexandria was established by Herophilus who is known as the father of anatomy, Share with someone who would like this!Tweet, Archimedes for example who’s famous for saying “Eureka! Then, a stone inscription mentions by name a director of the ‘Alexandrina Bybliothece.’ Emperor Domitian relied on the Library to copy texts lost to fire, sending “scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and correct them.”, Another author even informs us that Emperor Hadrian actually visited the Museum in 130 AD: “In the Museum at Alexandria, he propounded many questions to the teachers.”. And there recently have been claims that Caesar accidentally burned down the library, as there is an effort to hide the brutality of such a praised barbarian as Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar did indeed attack the port of Alexandria. The building, part of the Royal Quarter of palaces, was instead called the Museum. “If religious barbarians hadn’t destroyed the library of Alexandria, we’d probably have colonies on Mars and the Jovian moons by now.” “probably the single greatest loss to general knowledge,science engineering etc in history, even hitlers book burning pales by comparison” This institution gathered the largest collection of writings to date, as well as a large number of research instruments and documents from the ancient world. So how many Scrolls did they have? An unburned building full of decaying books would not have made a particle of difference. The burning of the Library of Alexandria in Ancient Egypt ranks among the worst crimes committed against humanity in known history. And there recently have been claims that Caesar accidentally burned down the library, as there is an effort to hide the brutality of such a praised barbarian as Julius Caesar. (9 Facts), 15 Exquisite Royal Portraits You Should Check Out, Amedeo Modigliani: A Modern Influencer Beyond his Time. Fact is it declined gradually over centuries. The oldest is a text written sometime in the 2d century BC. Ptolemy VIII Physcon's expulsion of the scholars from Alexandria brought about a shift in the history of Hellenistic scholarship. It formed part of the research institute at Alexandria in Egypt that is known as the Alexandrian Museum. Gustave Courbet: What Made Him The Father of Realism? Library of Alexandria, had the largest collection of book. If the Great Library had been destroyed by fire, why did Emperor Claudius “added to the old Museum at Alexandria a new one called after his name”? Before we go into details of the destruction of the library. Items and Information that would have been considered Ancient to them. The correct thread title should be "why was the Alexandria Library burned?" / Getty Images. Ancient Rome Ancient History Cyclades Greece Library Of Alexandria Ghost City Carl Sagan … So perished that marvelous monument of the literary activity of our ancestors, who had gathered together so many great works of brilliant geniuses.”, Further, “in this were invaluable libraries, and the unanimous testimony of ancient records declares that 700,000 books…were burned in the Alexandrine war when the city was sacked under the dictator Caesar.”, And, “an enormous quantity of books, nearly seven hundred thousand volumes…were all burned during the sack of the city in our first war with Alexandria.”, Stella of Tiberius Claudius Balbillus, prefect of Egypt from 55 to 59 AD. What happened? The result is. It’s a typical belief that the library of Alexandria was destroyed once, however that's actually false. The earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament and the Septuagint was written in the city of Alexandria, and possibly inside the Library itself. According to several authors, the Library of Alexandria was accidentally destroyed by Julius Caesar during the siege of Alexandria in 48 BC. However, he didn’t mention burning the library. Having to re-learn, re-invent, and re-discover what was already know slows progression, and without a doubt set back human civilization and it’s mental growth and progress by at least a thousand years. We are here to make sure that you are 100% satisfied with your purchase! Primary Evidence Overload! Yet, a few artifacts can be linked to philosophers, therefore potential members of the Museum. Burning of the Library of Alexandria (391 CE) - Hutchinsons History of the Nations (1910) Lots of works were probably burned by the religious zealots and there are some theories that the Christians destroyed the library. However, as the Library was attached to the Musaeum, and Strabo did mention the latter, it is possible that the library was still in existence during Strabo’s time. In any case, we can still pay homage to the greatest library of the ancient world by making sure humanity never again suffer such a massive loss of knowledge. Aurelian destroyed the palace area. Last edited: Monday at 11:42 AM. If making sense of Alexandria’s story wasn’t already confounding enough, there were several libraries in Alexandria, two of them ‘great.’ The first was the library that was part of the Museum. The fire at Alexandria also prefigures the demise of the book in the age of digital texts. The scholar was Theon, “the man from the Mouseion, an Egyptian, a philosopher.”. And there recently have been claims that Caesar accidentally burned down the library, as there is an effort to hide the brutality of such a praised barbarian as Julius Caesar. The sad fact is that the world lost a lot when library of Alexandria was brougt down to rubble. They were the successors of Alexander the Great, who had invaded Egypt, becoming Pharaoh. In the 21st century, however, the topic has cooled down, and there is growing agreement among serious scholars that … There is the myth of the Library of Alexandria and its destruction by fire. – This is a depiction of the Library of Alexandria, unfortunately, it has been destroyed. By Preston Chesser. It states that he was “in charge of the temples…that are in Alexandria and in all Egypt and upon the Museum and besides the Alexandrian library.”. But how and why it was lost is still a mystery. Most of the earliest clay tablets that were created contained information saved for practical purposes. We all know the story of the Library of Alexandria, the vast repository of ancient texts that was burnt to the ground by Caesar in 48 B.C. It states: The second explained how books were acquired: Egyptian holding a papyrus roll, surrounded by Osiris and Anubis, via Pushkin Museum. As the saying goes, when you want to read a book that has not been written, then you must write it. 8) The ancient library of Alexandria was destroyed on two different occasions. This Alexandria was host to the Library of Alexandria, a veritable encyclopedia of the entirety of the world’s knowledge at that time. The fate of that great wealth of books remains provocative and controversial. Library of Alexandria, the most famous library of Classical antiquity. Well first off, It’s been burned down 3 times. Here it is, written nearly 300 years after its creation: Disappointingly, this is no actual description of a grand building, only that scholars lived in a place where they could stroll and take their meals together in a large hall. The very last time we find a mention of the Museum or Library is circa 380 AD, that is, more than 400 years after Julius Caesar supposedly destroyed it. Alexandria prefigures the medieval burnings of heretical and Jewish books, as well as the modern burnings of texts condemned for their modernity, immorality, or racial or ideological errancy. The Muses were the goddesses of music and poetry. Proceed, then, and destroy them.”, The books were sent to Alexandria’s four thousand bathhouses. Not a single stone of the Library building has been found. BURNING OF LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA: A SYMBOL 509 historical reality may have been, our inquiry will address the legendary and symbolic ramifications of the burning in western consciousness. If, on the other hand, they contain matter not in accordance with the book of Allah, there can be no need to preserve them. We know this happened because Caesar wrote about setting the fire. The original library branch was located at the royal palace at Alexandria, near the harbor. Their creators had no need to save or archive them and as such those first examples of writing are lost. They’re burning the Library of Alexandria again, and we’re letting them get away with it. Emerging out of post-war New York in the... By our standards, living in antiquity was full of hardships regardless of where you look. The burning of the Library is just a footnote to that larger story. Despite this fame, scholars know little about it and much debate surrounds the details of its existence and eventual destruction. Once the largest library in the ancient world, and containing works by the greatest thinkers and writers of antiquity, including Homer, Plato, Socrates and much more, the Library of Alexandria, northern Egypt, is popularly believed to have been destroyed in a huge fire around 2000 … Geologists think it was right on the harbor, and multiple stories. The History of Burning the Old Alexandria Library. It was built in 288 BCE by Ptolemy I, And was named in honor of their famous barbarian yet intellectual, Alexander “the Great “. At the time a text tells us that “he burnt all those ships and the rest that were in the docks.” This means the wooden boats tied together in the harbor burnt one after the other and that the wind spread the flames to buildings on the seafront. With the invention of writing, believed to have occurred in Mesopotamia around 3200 B.C., came the need to archive and store collections of texts. Such an omission proves little since he was not in the habit … Dios. 8) The ancient library of Alexandria was destroyed on two different occasions.  The library of Alexandria was a center of knowledge of the ancient world, a culmination of the science, philosophy, art, and literature of the day. There is only a single description, of all ancient texts that survive, as to what the library might have looked like. Abstract Expressionism is one of the most celebrated and significant art movements of the 20th century. We read that “forty thousand books were burned at Alexandria.” Then, a very clear accusation that Caesar “was forced to repel the danger by using fire, and this spread from the dockyards and destroyed the great library.”, More accusations followed: “The flames spread to part of the city and there burned four hundred thousand books stored in a building which happened to be nearby. Then, after a few weeks of tremors, the largest volcanic eruption in over two million years launched thousands of cubic kilometers of molten earth, ash and dust into the atmosphere, and rained hellfire upon a terrified population. let’s stop to look again at some of the great minds that studied in Ancient Kemet. While the story itself isn’t accurate, it speaks to us today as we face the digital book burnings that are threatening the modern-day Library of Alexandria: the internet. Three wonders, the Library, Alexander, and Cleopatra’s tombs vanished without a trace. Whether to fill your curiosity or help with your research, this…. 5. a hub for the worlds understandings and information to be gathered together throughout the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty. Plutarch, for instance, provides this account: When the enemy tried to cut off his (Julius Caesar’s) fleet, he was forced to repel the danger by using fire, and this spread from the dockyards and destroyed the great library. They ruled the country from the new capital, Alexandria. The infamous destruction by fire of the Library of Alexandria, with the consequent loss of the most complete collection of ancient literature ever assembled, has been a point of heated debate for centuries. The correct thread title should be "why was the Alexandria Library burned?" Nor the tragic loss of a library. Fishburn, Matthew. The library was named after Alexander the Great, who initiated the collection of documents in 334 BCE. The famous burning of the Library of Alexandria, including the incalculable loss of ancient works, has become a symbol of the irretrievable loss of public knowledge. This meant that the Museum was a religious institution and was the reason why its director was a priest. We know this happened because Caesar wrote about setting the fire. The burning of the Library of Alexandria ranks among the worst crimes ever committed against humanity. A stone inscribed “Dioscorides, 3 volumes.” It is unclear if it was a papyrus box or the base of a statue. The facade of Celsus’ library in Ephesus, built 400 years after Alexandria’s Library. The library of Alexandria had many names because of its greatness and the number and variety of books it contained, including the royal library of Alexandria, the Grand Library, or the great library of Alexandria. By collecting works from around the world, the library attracted renown scholars, making the city of Alexandria the capital of knowledge and learning at the time. For centuries the main point of contention was whether or not the library (or libraries—as two sites existed) survived until the Arab conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century. With collections of works, lecture halls, meeting rooms, and gardens, the library was part of a larger research institution called the Museum of Alexandria, where many of the most famous thinkers of the ancient world studied. The Great Library of Alexandria has assumed legend ary qualities in the centuries since its . [volume] (Raleigh, N.C.) 1834-1850, February 24, 1847, Image 3, brought to you by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library, Chapel Hill, NC, and the National Digital Newspaper Program. The end began with the supervolcano. There, “they say that it took six months to burn all that mass of material.”. Feb 21, 2020 - Explore Alicia Giles's board "Library of Alexandria", followed by 188 people on Pinterest. It absolutely was the focal point of knowledge and learning during ancient times. Pompeii mosaic depicting a group of philosophers, probably Plato in the center, via Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. This story was written six centuries after the fact. Your email address will not be published. Guillaume Deprez is a contributing writer and art historian, graduate of the Louvre School. The man who tried to save the books would have been 150 years old. To optimize our Worldwide Shipping program, products may be shipped seperately. Although no ancient source clearly states that the Museum and the Library were the same thing, we assume that they must have been related. It came to be known as the great library at Alexandria and was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The library housed two fascinating periods of research, civilization, and books: the Pharaonic and the Greek. It flourished as a hub for the worlds understandings and information to be gathered together throughout the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship. Additionally, the lack of clarity as to when the library disappeared and who’s responsible means we blame our chosen villain for its loss. When Julius Caesar intervened in the civil war between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII, Caesar set fire to the ships in the harbor. And please leave your thoughts, we are thankhful for your feedback and discussion. Either there was a library inside the Museum or a library building near it. Although there is a mythology of " the burning of the Library at Alexandria", the library may have suffered several fires or acts of destruction of varying degrees over many years. He achieved his objective: before long, some fifty-four thousand books were acquired.”, The conqueror was impressed but asked the Caliph what to do with those books. In this great library, the two cultures of the West and the East met through books and lectures hosted by the library, which was considered the first attempt at the modern idea of globalization It was compulsory that any scholar who was studying in Alexandria’s library would leave … This brings us to the main sources about the books in the Library. But the awareness of this history, what has happened, how it has happened, and what parts continue to happen, will go a long way. In part, photocopies. Could the burning of Alexandria Library be an accident? Private Collection. Updated at 3:10 p.m. on 9/23/2020. If you were a Roman emperor, and if you happened to take your name from a sartorial choice, the odds are that the judgment... Royal portraits represent an important part of the history of painting. Here are the ideas that we are going to explore: The Royal Library of Alexandria was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world. Image Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. It was built in 288 BCE by Ptolemy I, And was named in honor of their famous barbarian yet intellectual, Alexander “the Great “. Mar 2017 942 Colorado Dec 28, 2020 #92 There are many cases across multiple cultures where cities were burned, and this especially included libraries. The Age of Enlightenment: A List of References, The Complete List of Ancient Egyptian Papyri. Scholars need books. We all know the story of the Library of Alexandria, the vast repository of ancient texts that was burnt to the ground by Caesar in 48 B.C. The Library was located inside the Royal Quarter. And the reality, that it completely disappeared and only exists in ancient texts. The famous burning of the Library of Alexandria, including the incalculable loss of ancient works, has become a symbol of the irretrievable loss of public knowledge. There was even a time where ships that came to the harbor were, The medical school established within the Library of Alexandria. $80.00 ISBN 978-0-7123-0684-3. The Burning of the Library of Alexandria, 1876. Required fields are marked *. The story of the burning of the library of Alexandria is not mentioned by those who wrote the history of Egypt and its conquest, who lived many centuries before those who wrote this story. The mystery exists not for lack of suspects but from an excess of them. The Burning of the Library of Alexandria. It isn’t the only wonder to have vanished, as both the tombs of Alexander the Great and Cleopatra were also lost. It existed for almost seven hundred years. The Library of Alexandria was once the largest library, a storehouse of the world's finest literature. The Library of Alexandria is one of the most famous and well-known buildings in the ancient world. The great burning of Antiquity was a mass destruction of signs. Its members were men of letters, enjoying a generous allowance and free lodging. The first and most crucial of which was the by Julius Caesar in the year 48 BC. The reply was, “if their content is in accordance with the book of Allah, we may do without them, for in that case the book of Allah more than suffices. According to ancient sources, the Library of Alexandria was described to have been comprising of a collection of Scrolls, Greek columns, a room for shared dining, a reading room, meeting rooms, Gardens, lecture halls, and essentially the earliest known model of a university campus. The immense gap between the myth and the reality, that we know so little of, is difficult to fathom. At its height, the Library of Alexandria contained anywhere from 70,000 to 700,000 scrolls. At the time a text tells us that “he burnt all those ships and the rest that were in the docks.”. In Alexandria it was papyrus rolls rather than books that were supposedly burnt. We don’t even know with precision where the Museum was located. Inside the reading room of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. It had already misappropriated the greatest collection of African teachings but at its peak was acquiring writings of all types in Babylonian, Hebrew, Turkish texts, and more. Let me be the firts Romanophile to contribute then. We don’t even know if the Library of Alexandria was destroyed at all, due to contradictory texts and the absence of archaeological remains. The Lighthouse of Alexandria, as depicted in Kitāb al-Bulhān, the ‘Book of Wonders’, circa 1400, via Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. Home; Random; Nearby; Log in; Settings; About Wikipedia; Disclaimers The burning of the Library of Alexandria ranks among the worst crimes ever committed against humanity. Of course, nobody actually knows for sure estimates based in size and descriptions are between 400k-700k scrolls were burned to ashes. The Great Library of Alexandria, in northern Egypt was once the largest of the ancient world, containing the works of Homer, Plato, Euclid, Socrates, Aristotle and hundreds more.Close to one million books and scrolls from across Greece, Assyria, Egypt, Persia and India filled its vast shelves. We know the popular ones like Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Socrates, Hippocrates, Homer. Because it was a shrine to the Muses, called a Mouseion in Greek and a Museum in Latin. The burning of the Library of Alexandria in Ancient Egypt ranks among the worst crimes committed against humanity in known history. Written three centuries later, “in those days the orthodox inhabitants of Alexandria were filled with zeal and they collected a large quantity of wood and burned the place of the heathen philosophers.”. The Burning of the Library of Alexandria, 1876. Under Roman Catholic Rule, Julius Caesar killed everyone they conquered, this is why many people suggest that perhaps the, “History is written by those who conquered”. Will we finally know what happened? The library itself is known to have had an Acquisitions Department and a Cataloguing Department, and we know that it had a hall containing shelves of collections of papyrus scrolls known as “Biblioteca”. What exactly happened to this amazing storehouse of ancient knowledge, and who was responsible for its burning? The first and most crucial of which was the by. Two millennia after being created, the Library of Alexandria was reborn. Most disagree on its size, its location, and most of all, how it was ultimately destroyed. Aristarchus's student Preston Chesser. Among the wonders, there was the tomb of the conqueror that gave his name to the city, Alexander the Great. The library was for centuries a minaret for science and literature, a hub for researchers and knowledge seekers. Imagining scholars at work in the Great Library of Alexandria. A diaspora of Alexandrian scholarship occurred, in which scholars dispersed first throughout the eastern Mediterranean and later throughout the western Mediterranean as well. In 642, Muslim troops took over Egypt. Impressionist Art for Dummies: A Beginners Guide, 7 Contemporary Female Artists Using Erotic As Their Subject Matter, 4 Iconic Art and Fashion Collaborations that Shaped the 20th Century. These portraits served as means of communication for the members of the monarchy.... “forty thousand books were burned at Alexandria.”, “was forced to repel the danger by using fire, and this spread from the dockyards and destroyed the great library.”, “The flames spread to part of the city and there burned four hundred thousand books stored in a building which happened to be nearby. There was even a time where ships that came to the harbor were required to hand over all books that they had, as well as documentation and blueprints of ships and any type of technology. One needs to think of a well-funded scientific institute, concentrating the best scholars of the day. You see, there are, unfortunately, a tremendous number of widespread misconceptions about what the Library of Alexandria was and what happened to it. Probably not very much at all. confrontation caused the destruction. We do not know the exact date of its creation, but it would have been around 300 BC, ordered by either Ptolemy I or Ptolemy II. The myth is that the Library was intentionally burnt.  However, much controversy lies… (Bagnall, “Alexandria: Library of Dreams”, p.359) Like all New Atheist pseudo history, the myth of the burning of the Great Library is caricature of the facts, compressed into a moral fable. The only known image related to the destruction of the Serapeum temple, Theophilus, Archbishop of Alexandria, standing upon the sanctuary after its destruction in 391 AD, via Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. See more ideas about Library of alexandria, Alexandria, Hypatia. They’re burning the Library of Alexandria again, and we’re letting them get away with it. The North-Carolina standard. The original library branch was located at the royal palace at Alexandria, near the harbor. Images Roman sarcophagus, Pompeii painting and illustration of the Museum. This is why, for three centuries, the Pharaohs of Egypt were Greek and why the language written in the Library was Greek. It spread from the ships in the harbor to Alexandria, burning down the area of the city that contained the Library of Alexandria. Following the anti-pagan edicts of 391 AD, the Serapeum temple was destroyed. $34.95 ISBN 978-0-230-55328-6. And any of those attacks could have marked the demise of the Library. For centuries the main point of contention was whether or not the library (or libraries—as two sites existed) survived until the Arab conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century. However, he didn’t mention burning the library. The loss of scientific understandings in that of physics. Editors note: After the editing process, one paragraph in this article did not reflect the author’s original intent. For colonnades, there is a roof adorned with gold, and the capitals of columns are worked in bronze overlaid with gold. T HE “C OMPLAINT OF B OOKS A GAINST W AR ” “Endless are the losses inflicted on the race of books by the tumults of war” wrote the English bibliophile Richard de Bury in his Philobiblon in 1345 (Bury, 1345/1948, p. 45). When Julius Caesar intervened in the civil war between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII, Caesar set fire to the ships in the harbor. Taking a hard look at the facts about the Library of Alexandria, there is much we do not know. So perished that marvelous monument of the literary activity of our ancestors, who had gathered together so many great works of brilliant geniuses.”, when the city was sacked under the dictator Caesar.”, “an enormous quantity of books, nearly seven hundred thousand volumes…were all burned during the sack of the city in our first war with Alexandria.”, “the man from the Mouseion, an Egyptian, a philosopher.”, “the whole world beholds nothing more magnificent.”, “A center of excellence in the production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a meeting place for the dialogue of peoples and cultures.”, scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and correct them.”, Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk, “The walls were destroyed and the town lost the greatest part of the quarter called Bruccheion.”, Lost Treasures, the destruction of works of cultural heritage by intolerance and greed, This Is Abstract Expressionism: The Movement Defined in 5 Artworks, Beyond Constantinople: Life In the Byzantine Empire, Was Caracalla More than a Bloodthirsty Tyrant? Unlikely, but under the city, or at the bottom of the bay, there might still be clues. Fact is it declined gradually over centuries. Well first off, It’s been burned down 3 times. Julius Caesar did indeed attack the port of Alexandria. Could the burning of Alexandria Library be an accident? The fire at Alexandria also prefigures the demise of the book in the age of digital texts. This huge fire reached the library and caused terrible cultural damage. Since the Museum was funded by Kings, its library was one of the most important in the ancient world. The dream of a universal library may have been impossible at the time, but the Library of Alexandria did surpass all of its rivals as the largest library in existence. Four contemporary historians stated that Caesar burned the library accidentally, when burning ships, but, there was more than one library in Alexandria, and recent evidence geographical evidence (by the French archeologist Jean Yves in his book; Alexandria: Jewel of Egypt) highlights that the historians may have got bibliothekas, which … A marble statue, potentially depicting Alexander, was found deep under a public garden in 2009. Now, what do ancient texts tell us about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria? And by book, one needs to understand it as a papyrus roll. Dios. The first and most crucial of which was the by Julius Caesar in the year 48 BC. At it's peak the Library contained between 40,000 and 400,000 manuscripts, (scrolls) and employed more than 100 staff to maintain the collection. Book (London: British Library, 2007) 444 pp. Indeed, the beauty is beyond the power of words.”. We do not know if the Serapeum library still existed when the temple was destroyed, but two authors do mention the loss of books. Precisely because the Great Library vanished without a trace, the myth has been magnified over centuries. The basement of the Vatican houses 53 miles of shelf space with very limited access. One day maybe a subway system or underground car park will be built, revealing the ancient city underneath. 262 pages. A 19th century illustration of the burning of the Library of Alexandria. Ptolemy I, successor of Alexander the Great. Outline of a sphinx, with the statue of a Priest carrying an Osiris-jar. Burning Books (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) 219 pp. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Show it to me.”. Here is an ancient description of Alexander’s tomb: Like nearly all Pharaohs, Alexander had to suffer his gold treasure being looted. Letters, enjoying a generous allowance and free lodging and Cleopatra ’ s single greatest archive knowledge! Museum – Library of Alexandria Pompeii mosaic depicting a group of philosophers, therefore potential members of the famous. Contained 42,800 books from 70,000 to 700,000 scrolls depicting Alexander, and books: the Pharaonic the. Visitors came to be known as the ‘ daughter ’ Library, was found deep under public. City underneath see more ideas about Library of Alexandria whose works were just lost into ashes most crucial of was! Should be `` why was the by Julius Caesar did indeed attack the port did reflect... Story when Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek box or the base of statue... To this Library a second up in the year 48 BC over centuries that gave his name the! Several destructive forces throughout its existence, the Library all, how it lost... To be gathered together throughout the Greek Museum previously quoted, written years. 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