jujuba) and Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana), as well as several other important cultivated fruit crops. [51] The authors concluded that the synergism occured via enhancing G1 cellular arrest, which was confirmed by less DNA synthesis and improved Rb protein (mediator of G1) actions. Jujube has a long history of usage as a fruit and remedy. [55], The LD50 of an ethyl acetate fraction of Jujube (concentrated flavanoids) appears to be around 2.5g/kg in female mice. Whereas the flavonoid and polyphenolic profile contains: Apigenin[17] and its diglucoside Isovitexin[17], Swertish and Puerarin as monoglucoside flavonoids[17], Spinosin and Isospinosin as diglucoside flavonoids, 6'''-feruloylspinosin and 6'''-feruloylisospinosin as related molecules[17] and 6'''- This plant is known as Ennab and Annab in the Arabic and Persian languages, respectively. 'Jinsixiaozao' in north China. Dongzao), Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujuba and evaluation of antioxidant activity, Effects of water-soluble carbohydrate concentrate from Chinese jujube on different intestinal and fecal indices, Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea, Screening of Korean herbal medicines used to improve cognitive function for anti-cholinesterase activity, Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxiety, Exploration of mice in a black and white test box: validation as a model of anxiety, Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, Potentiating effect of spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid of Semen Ziziphi spinosae, on pentobarbital-induced sleep may be related to postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, Hypnotic effect of jujubosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube, Hydroalcoholic extract of Zizyphus jujuba ameliorates seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in experimental models of epilepsy in rats, Zizyphus enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in middle-aged mice, Zizyphus attenuates ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus via its antioxidant effect, Inhibitory effect of jujuboside A on glutamate-mediated excitatory signal pathway in hippocampus, Inhibitory effect of jujuboside A on penicillin sodium induced hyperactivity in rat hippocampal CA1 area in vitro, Protection of NMDA-induced neuronal cell damage by methanol extract of zizyphi spinosi semen in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells, The inhibitory effects of jujuboside A on rat hippocampus in vivo and in vitro, Inhibitory effects of jujuboside A on EEG and hippocampal glutamate in hyperactive rat, The peristaltic reflex induced by short-chain fatty acids is mediated by sequential release of 5-HT and neuronal CGRP but not BDNF, Ziziphus jujuba extract for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation: a controlled clinical trial, Possible attenuation of nitric oxide expression in anti-inflammatory effect of Ziziphus jujuba in rat, Anti-inflammatory activity of seed essential oil from Zizyphus jujuba, Screening of a functional polysaccharide from Zizyphus Jujuba cv. If using any pharmaceuticals or drugs given to you by a doctor or received with a prescription, you must consult with the doctor in question or an equally qualified Health Care Professional prior to using any nutritional supplementation. This page features 56 references. All rights reserved. 3: 319. The jujube tree is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). [40] Even lower concentrations (0.05-5mcg/mL) appear to protect neurons from glutaminergic excitotoxicity, secondary to preventing an influx of calcium. ; Z. vulgaris Lam.) Ziziphus lotus L. Enter your email and we'll keep you on top of the latest nutrition research, supplement myths, and more. 56 unique references to scientific papers. For experimental study were used 19 seed grown genotypes planted in experimental garden of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. Ziziphus jujuba (Chinese jujube) (Ziziphus sativa), Effect of Zizyphus jujuba extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, The antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities of Zizyphus jujube, Ethnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants of Parinche valley, Pune district, Maharashtra, India, Simultaneous determination of saponins and fatty acids in Ziziphus jujuba (Suanzaoren) by high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and pressurized liquid extraction, Zizyphus jujuba and its Active Component Jujuboside B Inhibit Platelet Aggregation, Three new cyclopeptide alkaloids from Zizyphus species, Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of triterpenic acids, saponins and flavonoids in the leaves of two Ziziphus species by HPLC-PDA-MS/ELSD, Determination of zizybeoside II of Ziziphus jujuba by HPLC, Characterization of triterpenic acids in fruits of ziziphus species by HPLC-ELSD-MS, UHPLC-TOFMS coupled with chemometric method as a powerful technique for rapid exploring of differentiating components between two Ziziphus species, Anti-complementary activity of triterpenoides from fruits of Zizyphus jujuba, Triterpenoids isolated from Zizyphus jujuba inhibit foam cell formation in macrophages, Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba, Effect of Drying of Jujubes ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) https://examine.com/supplements/ziziphus-jujuba/, © 2011-2021 Examine.com Inc | Privacy | Terms of Service | Disclaimer | About Us | Contact Examine.com. "sidrah", pl. [56], Jujube has apparently been used to prevent pregnancy, as was mentioned in the introduction of one study. Source. Ziziphus mauritiana extract showed anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities 19, 20, 21. In winter, the shoots and fruit of the trees are an important feed source 7. [43][40], The traditional method of preparation of Jujubes for the purpose of constipation relief to to boil 50g of Jujube fruits (20 whole fruits of 2–2.5 cm in length) to create a soup or drink, which may be related to extraction of a water soluble polysaccharide noted to have anti-constipative effects, and comprise 77% of the dry weight of jujube fruits. Ziziphus mauritianaleaves contain 13-17% crude protein and 15% fibre, and make an excellent fodder for livestock. Z . ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. sinapoylspinosin[18], Rutin (Quercetin-3-O-Rutinoside)[13] at 15.78-32.74mg/g of the leaves[20], Protocatechuic acid, Chlorogenic Acid, Gallic Acid, and Caffeic Acid[21], Nucleosides and Nucleobases, at 420-550mcg/g and mostly cAMP[22] and Uridine[23], Dietary minerals such as selenium (0.242mcg/g), zinc (13.8mcg/g), and Iron (38.2mcg/g)[24]. 1789; Manilal & Sivar., Fl. Each member of our research team is required to have no conflicts of interest, including with supplement The word Jujuba is a latinised form of the vernacular name and Zizyphus is from the Arabic. Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) Karsten (Rhamnus zizyphus L.; Z. jujuba Mill. In our laboratories were analysed quantitative and qualitative traits of matured fruits. The team includes nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. Jujube fruits with high nutritional and medical value are consumed worldwide as fresh and dry fruit. [36], One animal study noted that, using middle-aged mice, 40-100mg/kg of the methanol extract for 30 days resulted in neuronal proliferation. Calicut 67. Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese Date) is a fruit-bearing plant belonging to the Rhamnaceae family and the Ziziphus genus, with the species of Zizyphus. A field trial was conducted in 2007 in Linze County, Gansu, China to study the daily changes of leaf gas exchange parameters of 5-year-old Ziziphus jujuba under different intercropping conditions. Jujube flavonoids have once been found to act synergistically with 2mg/kg 5-HTP in inducing sleep in rats. [27] Fecal ammonia was decreased in a similarly dose-dependent manner, and levels of short chain fatty acids in the colon increased. [51] Green tea at 30ug/mL itself has no affect on viability, and this enhanced cell death was not seen in noncancerous liver cells under any condition. In contrast to the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) that is native to the temperate regions of China (Liu et al. Much of this confusion is because the ability to determine diferences between plants has developed many techniques unavailable to early botanists. This page features 56 references. It is also referred to asbedara, ber (i.e. Ziziphus mauritiana leaves were obtained from a local market, cleaned, dried and ground into powder. All factual claims are genotypes. [37], In response to Ischemia, oral ingestion of a methanolic extract of Ziziphus (dose undisclosed) appears to protect neurons from cell death (with Ischemia having 11.3% of control and ingestion of Ziziphus attenuating this to 58.4% as assessed by neuronal nuclei immunoreactivity four days after Ischemia) and was about as effective as the active control of 100mg/kg Ebselen. Synonyms: Rhamnus Zizyphus L.; Z. sativa Gaertn. [37] Most of this enhancement was due to increased amounts of tertiary dendrites at both concentrations (354% and 579%, respectively), suggesting dendritic proliferation or an attenuation of dendritic loss associated with aging. This group has a controversial taxonomy, with more than 200 species described, including Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. (syn. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. [2] Subsequently, Zizyphus Jujuba was able to suppress lipid accumulation in these adipocytes and appeared to reduce the protein content of PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ; three adipogenic proteins. fruit belonging to the Rhamnaceous family grows mostly in Europe, southern and eastern Asia, and Australia, especially the inland region of northern China. [27] These authors hypothesized that the increase in SCFAs explained the observed effects, as SCFAs have been previously linked to mucosal stimulation[44] although the decrease in mucosinase may also partly explain the moisture content. [48] In a mouse model fed the crude water-soluble polysaccharides at 50, 150, and 250mg/kg daily the two larger doses caused an increase in nonspecific immunity (as assessed by spleen and thymus index) and was able to proliferate splenocytes and macrophages in vitro. Ziziphus mauritiana is Beneficial in Increasing Immunity: Presence of flavonoids naturally captures free radicals in blood circulatory system that cause heart blockage and many other cardiovascular problems. [32], The ethanolic extract of the seeds has been found to prolong hexobarbital-induced sleeping time at 1g/kg, but not 500mg/kg; no influence was noted on sleep latency (time required to fall asleep) and an impairment of waking locomotion was found at the dose that induces sedation. Ziziphus mauritiana has a multitude of uses, including culinary and medicinal. With some bioactive polysaccharides (totalling 5.1-6.76% total weight in these two studies,[25][26] reporting a third (not available online) citing 4.42 to 7.91%;[26] these are 77.1% of dry weight, since the fruits have a high water content[27]) consisting of: Neutral polysaccharide (arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose at 0.3:0.2:0.2:1:0.7 ratios)[26] which appears to have anti-oxidant properties, Acidic polysaccharides containing rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a ratio of either 0.3:9.6:0.1:0.4:1:12.1 or 3:16.8:1.2:0.2:1:12.2[26] that are also anti-oxidant in nature, Acidic polysaccharide with rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose at 21:24:2:1:20[26], Many compounds are structurally similar to Apigenin, as Swertish is an Apigenin molecule with a methoxy (-OCH3) group at the 7-carbon instead of a hydroxy (-OH) group and a single glucose bound to it; Puerarin is an isomer of Swertish with the glucose bound to the 8 carbon rather than the 6 carbon. The other three herbs are Paeonia lactiflora, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis; this combination apparently has some limited usage as cancer adjunct therapy. 7 May 2020, Cooke) is one of the most serious diseases that occur on Ziziphus jujuba Mill. "Ziziphus jujuba," Examine.com, published on 10 November 2013, last updated on var. [47] The only current study on the subject matter is one in female mice given an ethyl acetate fraction of Jujube (consisting of polyphenolics and flavanoids) at 60-240mg/kg bodyweight appeared to reduce the weight of the ovaries and inhibit the estrus cycle, with a greater potency than the other herb tested (Croton roxburghii). [56] This co-existed with an inhibition of delta-5-3β-HSD in a dose dependent manner, and all parameters were normalized 32 days after supplementation cessation.[56]. The ratio between herbs and the mixture was 2: 8. [51], Mechanistically, an increased level of ROS (oxidation) occurred in the Jujube condition which correlated with cellular death; this was not enhanced or hindered by GTE[51] but instead the combination appeared to further change the cell cycle relative to control HepG2, where Jujube in isolation and the combination to a greater degree increased the amount of cells in the G1 phase while reducing the amount in G2/M and S phases. [35] At a dose of phenobarbitol that was seen as suboptimal (able to induce sleep in a minority of animals), the amount of animals who managed to sleep increased from 20% to 90% with the saponins (70% with flavonoids). Click here [30] Oral administration of 0.5, 1, and 2g/kg of the ethanolic seed extract in mice was able to exert anxiolytic effects, and although it was equally effective as Buspirone and Diazepam (2mg/kg and 1mg/kg, respectively) at a black and white test (anxiety model[31]) at 500mg/kg, it appeared to become less potent at anxiolysis at 1 and 2g/kg while becoming more sedative in nature. [34], PHY906 is a term used to refer to a decoction of four herbs that has usage in Traditional Chinese Medicine under the name of Huang-Qin-Tang, one of which is Ziziphus Jujuba. Front. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Ziziphusis a genus of spiny shrubs and small trees in the Rhamnaceae family. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (where it is called Da Zao), Jujuba is used for anodyne (pain-killing), antitumor, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic medication; in Japan, Jujuba is used to treat chronic hepatitis or fullness in the chest and ribs. from China, Extract process of cyclic adenosinemonophosphate (cAMP) in Ziziphus jujuba, Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by UPLC-DAD-MS, Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA, Characterization of water soluble polysaccharides from organs of Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. 3: 319. Jujuba tends to contain as its terpenoid and saponin profile: Jujubosides such as Jujuboside A (0.126-0.476mg/g), Jujuboside B (0.106-0.506mg/g)[5][6] as well as D[7] and E[8] as well as the amine compound Jubanine E[9], Zizyphus saponin I and II (2.59-7.24mg/g and up to 3.05mg/g with some undetectable samples in the leaves; respectively)[10] and zizybeoside II at 130-410mcg/g[11], Ceanothic acid (0.48-5.77mg/g in the leaves; 2.6-4.3mg/100g in berries), epiceanothic acid (0.57-7.63mg/g leaves; 13.8-19.6mg/100g berries), and ceanothenic acid (0.26-0.32mg/g but usually undetectable in leaves)[10][12], Maslinic acid (0.44-1.66mg/g, sometimes undetectable in leaves; 41.5-66.3mg/100g berries), oleanolic acid (0.59-1.47mg/g in leaves; 18.3 -41.7mg/g berries) and Oleanonic acid (37.5-110.5mg/100g in berries)[10], Betulinic acid (1.13-4.35mg/g in the leaves; 7.8-48.7mg/100g usually with one sample reaching 362.2mg/100g[12]) and zizyberanalic acid (1.13-2.37mg/100g, sometimes undetectable)[10] and Zizyberenalic acid[13], Ursolic Acid (6.5-26mg/g berries) and 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (0.69-4.02mg/g in leaves)[13][10], Alphitolic acid (0.89-3.99mg/g in leaves; 20.6-41.3mg/100g in berries),[10] Colubrinic Acid,[14] and Ursonic acid (22.3-95mg/100g)[12], Coumaroyl compounds 3-O-cis-p-Coumaroylalphitolic acid and 3-O-trans-p-Coumaroylalphitolic acid (aka. dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. 1982; Ansari, Fl. A small deciduous tree up to 30 ft high, with glabrous, spiny branches; spines in pairs, the longer one up to 1 1 ⁄ 4 in. Ziziphus is a genus of spiny shrubs and small trees in the Rhamnaceae family. ), and describes their postharvest physiology, postharvest handling and storage, postharvest disorders, pathology, associated entomology and processing. The essential oils from the seeds of Ziziphus Jujuba appear to be able to induce hair regrowth in mice when topically applied. Our evidence-based analysis on ziziphus jujuba features 1789. 1 Introduction. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA Lamarck, Encycl. The team includes nutrition researchers, registered Thick rotten disease (Physalospora obtuse (Schw.) spinosa, Ziziphus mauritiana, saponins, flavonoids, fatty acids, chemometrics. jujuba) and Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana), as … While the better-known, smooth-leaved Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) [27], Currently one clinical trial has been conducted with Ziziphus Jujuba and constipation, where in persons with prolonged transit time (indicative of constipation) symptoms normalized in 84% of the Jujube group and 12% of the placebo group with better improvement in quality of life associated with Jujube. [30], According to one systemic review on insomnia, the Traditional Chinese Medicine called Suan Zao Ren (which is Ziziphus Jujuba) appears to be the most commonly used insomniac treatment; conclusions on its efficacy in humans could not be drawn due to a lack of good evidence, however. (Lam.) and Z. mauritiana Lam., as a widespread species in Tunisia, are well known for their medicinal and food uses. Examine.com and its Editors do not ensure that unforeseen side effects will not occur even at the proper dosages, and thereby does not assume liability for any side effects from supplements or practices hosted under the domain of Examine.com. Hydroalcoholic extract was achieved according to Nagappan [12] with some modifications. Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) The most common Indian name is 'ber'. Basionym: ** Type: MAURITIUS: Without data, Sonnerat s.n. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. jujuba, and spinosa are among the different species of this plant, and Ziziphus mauritiana is another name for Z. jujube Mill. Introduction. Ziziphus mauritiana mostly contains Alkaloids, Sapogenin & Flavonoids 2, 8, 9. [36] A reduction in physical contractions was also noted, with absolute (100% protection) against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and 66.7% in electricity-induced convulsions at 1g/kg (the dose required for sedation), with lower doses being effective but to a lesser degree. It also contains Triterpenoids and Phenolic compounds 10, 11. Show these synonyms only. Jujubes are also commonly called red dates, Chinese dates, Korean dates or Indian dates. Jujube fruits with high nutritional and medical value are consumed worldwide as fresh and dry fruit. Ziziphus jujuba is thus the correct scientific name for this species. This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. [27] This study extracted said polysaccharide according to the traditional methods, and when feeding to hamsters (40mg; equivalent to 50g fruits in humans) was able to increase fecal moisture content and decrease transit time in a dose-dependent manner.